CHKDSK is not the tool to check the disk.
In fact, CHKDSK only checks the filesystem, regardless of where it is located and what state of corresponding physical storage is. The filesystem may be located on a RAID 5 in which one of the member disks has already failed. In this case, from the CHKDSK's point of view, the filesystem is still OK.
One should understand that the data storage system consists of several levels and every level should be checked using the appropriate tools and techniques. For example,
- A database should be checked using whatever tool is provided with the SQL server.
- The volume that stores the database should be checked by CHKDSK.
- The RAID that contains the volume should be checked using diagnostic tools provided with the RAID controller.
- The member disks, should the need arise, should be checked by their corresponding vendor diagnostic tools.
Sounds a bit like "The House that Jack Built".